The testis, (plural testes), usually called the testicles, are a pair of glandular organs of the shape of an egg. They are the essential part of the working of the male reproductive system as vagina  or uterus to the female reproductive system. The testes are accountable for the sperm cell production, besides generating the testosterone (a male sex hormone).

During a male’s lifetime, both the testes generate and release nearly 12 trillion sperm. Just in one ejaculation of semen, nearly 400 million sperm get released.

The testicles are positioned in the scrotum in a hollow sac.  Each one of the two testes is stretched about 1 inch diametrically and nearly 1.5 – 2 inches long alongside its long pivot.

The testes are joined to the fundamental organs of the visceral body cavity through the spermatic cords. Lymphatic and blood vessels and nerves travelling via the spermatic leads or cords help in supporting the testes.

The vas deferens passing via the spermatic cord carries sperm out of your testes towards the urethra and the prostrate to mix in the semen. The cremaster muscle covers the exterior region of the spermatic cord or lead for lifting the testes nearer to the body or allowing them to move down.

The shielding cover of thick and uneven connective tissue of the tunica albuginea and, an annexed abdomen peritoneum known as tunica vaginalis, cover the testicles.

Each of the two testicles is separated by inwardly folds of the tunica albuginea, which split into hundreds of lobules, also known as undersized sections. Every lobule has many curving tubes, known as seminiferous tubules.

The seminiferous tubules’ walls hold the Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells for the smooth functioning of the testes. The germ cells, in millions, located in the seminiferous tubules develop in multiplications and distinguish themselves and produce spermatocytes from the beginning of puberty until the demise of a person.

The spermatocytes grow as spermatids and finally as spermatozoa, or sperm. The undeveloped sperm gradually attain maturity while travelling through the seminiferous tubules and are protected and supported by the Sertoli cells.

Leydig cells located at the seminiferous tubules’ endings produce testosterone hormone, which generates the inferior sex features linked to males.

Every sperm generated by the testes attains maturity in nearly 72 days and is supervised by a complicated set of hormone relations.

The scrotum is endowed with a fitted thermostat for keeping the temperate inside it correctly.

Do not get caught in a surprise that such a sensitive and vital body organ is placed at such a susceptible place as in the exterior of your body. But the testes and the spermatogenesis need a lesser temperature than the body inside.  And, it is very warm to remain within the body.

Spermatogenesis needs at least 3 to 5 degree lesser temperature, if measured in Fahrenheit, than inside the body. In case it gets cooler on the outside during the winter season, the cremaster muscle tends to shrink and brings the testes near the body for gaining warmth.

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