The lining in your uterus is called the endometrium. The uterus is an important organ of a female’s reproductive system, besides your ovaries and the Fallopian tubes. The task of your reproductive system is to reproduce babies.
The uterus is endowed with a place where a fertilized oocyte (egg) with the help of a sperm in the semen develops into a zygote, an embryo, a fetus and eventually a baby. The uterus is shaped with smooth muscle known as the myometrium. The endometrium (also known as the endometrial lining or the uterine lining) plays an essential role in sustaining a pregnancy.
The endometrium may be separated into two layers:
- Functional layer and
- Basal layer (beneath the functional layer)
The functional layer exterior is shaped with unique epithelial cells. Apart from this, uterine glands and sustaining tissue that have plentiful blood vessels also are present in both the basal and the functional layers.
The uterine lining is an active structure. The endometrium role is to endow a space for the fertilized egg for implanting in it and supporting the placenta growth. Menstruation occurs if the earlier ovulation (also know about anovulation) does not conclude in implanting a fertilized egg. Therefore, if a pregnancy does not happen in a woman, the uterus sheds the lining through her periods.
In each menstrual cycle, before the ovulation takes place, the endometrium goes through changes in order to prepare itself for a fertilized egg implantation. This period of the menstrual cycle is called the proliferative time.
At the ovulation time, the levels of progesterone increase. The thickened endometrial lining matures with the help of the progesterone. The arteries and join together in preparing the foundation for the embryo implantation and the placenta development.
In case the implantation does not occur, the changes in the hormonal levels begin detaching the thickened endometrium.
Menstrual flow is shaped up with the cells discarded by the functional layer along with the blood from the small blood vessels surrounding the glands that become bare as the functional layer begin shedding.
As the endometrial lining changes in reacting to the change in the hormonal levels among ovulating females, the uterine lining of the younger girls and the woman, who have attained menopause, does not alter.
For example, overweight females having excessive fat cells generate excessive amount of estrogen and they often confront heavier menstrual bleding. This happens as there is additional put up in their functional layer in the proliferative period. This additional buildup chronically may make you suffer from endometrial hyperplasia.
Another instance is what occurs to the endometrium in females who use only progesterone or contraception, such as intrauterine devices, the Mirena or the contraceptive insert Nexaplanon.
These procedures may result in excessive amounts of progesterone persistently. The progesterone initially restricts and later restrains the endometrium buildup of the functional layer. Consequently, there is negligible to no menstrual (periods) bleeding because there is a very small or no lining for shedding.