The uterus is commonly known as the womb. It is a muscular organ, which is hollow from inside. It is an important organ of the female reproductive system, where the embryo and fetus develop during pregnancy and, eventually, take birth as a baby.
It is an exceedingly tough organ that can contract vigorously to push a full-term baby out of your body at the time of delivering a child. The uterus, sitting in an inverted position in the pelvic cavity of your torso, is about the size and shape of a pear.
It is placed along the midline of your body anterior to your rectum and posterior to the urinary bladder. The cervix, the constricted inferior region of your uterus, hooks the uterus to your vagina beneath it. The cervix also plays the role of a sphincter muscle in controlling the material inflow and outflow.
Just above your cervix, the corpus of your uterus is outspread that is hollow from inside. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, gets implanted in the hollow region of the uterus during pregnancy to develop as a baby.
The walls of the uterus body are much solid than that of your cervix as they are known for providing the necessary protection and support to the developing fetus. Its muscles have the suppleness to push the developed fetus (baby) out of your body at the time of delivery of your child.
On top of the body of your uterus area, there is a domed area, called the fundus of your uterus. Both your Fallopian tubes are positioned laterally on the fundus from their corners. The uterus walls are made of three dissimilar tissue layers, such as:
- The outermost layer, known as the perimetrium, makes the outer skin of your uterus. It is a tunica serosa continuous with the peritoneum, which cover up the significant organs of your abdominopelvic cavity. The perimetrium makes a silky coating of the simple squamous epithelium and shield the uterus from abrasion by emitting runny serous liquid that lubricates the uterus surface.
- Just beneath the perimetrium level, the myometrium makes the middle layer of your uterus. This myometrium layer contains many layers of smooth tissue, commonly known as visceral muscle tissue. These smooth muscle tissues have special cells that are capable of contracting and relaxing, thus creating movement. During the course of your pregnancy, because of the unique features of myometrium, the uterus swells to carry a full-term baby and then contracts to push the baby out at the time of delivery.
- In the deep interior of the myometrium, there is the endometrium layer that frames the hollow membrane-bound compartment of your uterus. The endometrium consists of cilated columnar epithelium along with several connected exocrine glands and a dense vascular connective tissue, which lends support to the growing embryo and fetus at the time of your pregnancy.
In case the egg does not get fertilized until it arrives in the uterus, it will just pass through your uterus and activate the blood vessels of the endometrium to wither away and wash out along with the uterine lining as vaginal fluid.
If an ovum or egg gets fertilized, the zygote will get implanted into the endometrial lining for developing into an embryo over a period of time and later as a fetus. As the embryo grows to become a fetus, it makes changes in the endometrium, which promote the development of the placenta.
The placenta gives the fetus oxygen and all the necessary nutrients the mother’s blood all through the pregnancy period. And, it transfers the metabolic waste and carbon dioxide to the mother’s blood for discarding.
These waves gradually increase in force and their frequency. Alongside, the smooth muscle tissue of your cervix begins to obliterate and enlarge from lesser than a centimeter to nearly ten centimeters in diameter as it is fully dilated.
As the cervix is completely dilated, the uterine contractions considerably increase in strength and the duration. And, the fetus is propelled out of the uterus for giving birth to a baby through the vagina.