The Fallopian tubes stay connected to the womb (uterus) bilaterally. Usually, the Fallopian tubes collect the egg released at the time of ovulation by the ovaries every month. Here is the meeting place of the egg and the sperm where they get united.
The sperm commences its journey towards the egg after copulation with a male partner from the vagina via the uterus and eventually gets together in one of the 2-Fallopian tubes. Fertilization takes place as the sperm contained in the semen penetrates into the egg and joins together to make a zygote, also called fertilized egg.
Thus formed zygote then heads its journey from the Fallopian tubes towards the uterus. By the time it reaches the uterus, it is developed as an embryo, which makes an effort to get implanted in the uterine lining. Later, if the implantation takes place, it transforms into a fetus and eventually a baby. Any blockage or damage at the end part of the Fallopian tube may result in filling the tube with contaminated fluid, get inflamed and the Fallopian tubes, thus, filled with such fluid are known as hydrosalpinx.
A usual pregnancy in the uterus may not happen as the tubes are blocked or damaged severely affecting their usual working. A pregnancy may happen in the tube itself, which is called Ectopic Pregnancy, which is considered a life-threatening condition.
Apart from this, because of the blocked tubes, the discharges that get collected in the tube because of the blocked, may sweep back into the uterus and obstruct implantation of the embryo into the uterine lining.
Hydrosalpinx may happen because of the infected Fallopoian tubes in the past, at times, because of the sexually transmitted infections or diseases, such as Chlamydia and Gonorrhea or the Pevlic Inflammatory Disease.
What are the symptoms of hydrosalpinx?
Most of the females do not show any symptoms of the presence of hydroslpinx other than infertility. In several females, the presence of an ectopic pregnancy is the 1st Indication of an issue in their tubes.
At times, several females may report constant and regular pain their pelvic region, or the lower abdomen. This pain may worsen during and after the menstruation (periods) . An unusual discharge from the vagina may be linked to this condition.
How to diagnose hydrosalpinx?
There are 3 methods of examining the blockage in one or both the Fallopian tubes and the presence of hydrosalpinx. One or more examinations are done for such purposes.
Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) (X-ray)
In this procedure, a special liquid is injected into the uterus with the help of an X-ray via the cervix. Another X-ray, known as Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is performed to know the movement of the special liquid. If the Fallopian tubes are healthy and open, the special liquid will move out of the Fallopian tubes ends towards the pelvic cavity. And, in case the tubes have a blockage, the liquid will get trapped and the doctor will announce the presence of a hydrosalpinx. However, the examination is not considered reliable. Sometimes, the outcomes are difficult to understand. They may, at times, incorrectly suggest that the tubes have a blockage.
With an ultrasound scan, your doctor may detect the hydroslpinx presence. In case, your Fallopian tubes seem inflated and enlarged, this generally points at a presence of a severe hydroslpinx.
In this procedure, the doctor makes a small incision in the belly for inserting a special kind of telescope, called a laparoscope for viewing the uterus and Fallopian tubes. While examining the Fallopian tubes, the doctor will be able to see if there is blockage in the tubes. In case a blockage is found, for confirmation, the doctor may insert a special dye via the cervix into the uterus, besides the Fallopian tubes to see if the dye moves out from the Fallopian tube ends.
In case of a total blockage of the Fallopian tubes, an egg is unable to make a journey through them into your uterus. You are required to be treated by a fertility expert to achieve pregnancy. Occasionally, the fertility specialist is able to remove the blockage with the help of a surgery.
During the IVF procedure, your egg unites with the sperm for fertilization in a laboratory. The embryo (fertilized egg), thus, created is placed in the uterus. However, before performing the IVF procedure, the doctors recommend removal or separation of the hydrosalpinx from the Fallopian tubes. The presence of hydrosalpinx while performing the IVF procedure reduces your probability of achieving pregnancy.