The cervix is the inferior part of the uterus, tapered below the larger body. The name ‘cervix’ has been derived from the Latin language, meaning ‘neck’ because of its location and shape.
It is basically the narrow link connected to the larger body of the uterus above and the vagina below it. The vital roles of the cervix include controlling the inflow and outflow of the uterus, protection of the fetus during pregnancy, and the delivery of the fetus during birth of a child.
The lower 1/3rd part of the uterus is known as the cervix and its tissues are uninterrupted, that make up the superior body of the uterus.
Simple squamous epithelium, which is known as the petrimetrium, makes the outer covering of the cervix.
There is a thick area of smooth muscle tissue in the interior of the perimetrium, which is called the myometrium. The myometrium provides the cervix the propensity to swell and contract.
Let us compare the propensities of the myometrium in cervix with the abilities of the superior body of the uterus.
While the larger body of the uterus has the ability to contract vehemently at the time of delivering a baby, the myometrium layer is quite thin, which enables the cervix to act as a sphincter for regulating the opening and the closing of the uterus.
The lining inside the cervix is a thin covering of endometrium that contains the epithelial cells to consistently produce the cervical mucus.
You may divide the cervix into anatomical distinctive sections:
- The cervical canal of the cervix is the hollow opening through your cervix that joins the uterine cavity with the hollow lumen of your vagina.
- The external orifice connects the cervical canal with the lumen of your vagina, which is a small rounded opening bounded by the exterior tissues of the cervix. The cervix tissues adjoining the external orifice, also known as external os, are circular and curved, making the external orifice to bulge a little into the vagina.
- The internal os, also known as internal orifice, connects the cervical canal with the uterine cavity. It is a small rounded aperture. The cervical canal narrows down here just before its opening in the uterus.
The cervix of your uterus plays the role of a doorkeeper of the uterus and controls inflow and outflow of the uterus.
The epithelial lining in the cervix helps it in fulfilling this task.
The lining produces cervical mucus that is thick enough to fill up the cervical canal to block the inflow and outflow of substances between your uterus and the connected vagina.
Just about the ovulation time, the density of the cervical mucus happens to be much lesser. This reduction in the density of the cervical mucus makes an easy route of the sperm in your uterus for the egg fertilization for attaining pregnancy.
The childbirth process necessitates the cervix to amplify to nearly 10-centimeters in diameter. This dilation is important to accommodate the fetus head of the offspring to pass through the birth canal. In order to accomplish this task, the cervix starts dilating several days before the formal beginning of the labor pain.